WASH Plan


Optimizing water treatment and quality control at 1001 fontaines sites in Cambodia
1 location in Cambodia
Focus: Water Purification; Capacity Building
Implementation dates: July 1, 2013 to July 1, 2014
Planned impact: 0 people
Status: Approved - Needs Funding
$41,414 estimated project cost
$20,000 requested
$0 funded to date
Peer Review Average Score: 5.67
8 reviews submitted
7 discussion participants

Summary

This project aims at improving the quality of the water produced by the 1001 fontaines sites. The focus will be put on two specific issues: adjusting the water treatment to each type of water source and improving the quality of water storage.

Background

> Focusing on water quality
Increasing access to “improved water sources” such as stated by the Millennium Goals does not guarantee that the populations are actually benefitting from a high quality of water. In developing countries especially, water quality can be affected by a wide range of processes, being natural or the result of human activity leading to physical or chemical contamination (human waste, agriculture, industry).
Water can be unsafe for human consumption if its quality is hampered due to lack of proper treatment, recontamination during transport or storage. However, it can also be “considered” unsafe by non-harmful qualities such as taste or odor leading to poor perception by users (UNICEF, Report on Water Quality Assessment & Monitoring, 2010).
Improving access to high quality of drinking water and its desirability in developing countries is therefore a particular challenge.
> The processes and technology used by 1001 fontaines
1001 fontaines uses a simple and low cost technology to produce safe water: Surface water is pumped from rivers or ponds. Small quantities of aluminium sulphate are added to the water to accelerate the settling of the suspended matter (flocculation). The water then goes through an activated carbon filter, a sand filter and finally an array of smaller filters (from 60 to 1 micron) to eliminate the remaining impurities. The water is then sent though the ultraviolet sterilization chamber. As the water flows at a constant flow through the system, the ultraviolet rays disinfect the water by killing the remaining microorganisms. The whole treatment unit (water pump and UV system) is powered by solar energy.

The water is then bottled in 20-litre containers, which are disinfected with small quantities of chlorine, filled and sealed. These bottles are delivered directly to the clients’ home, ensuring water quality at the point of consumption.

> Water quality management and monitoring at 1001 fontaines
To quote Louis Pasteur, “We drink 90% of our diseases”. 1001 fontaines focuses on improving the health of rural populations so that guaranteeing access to high quality water is a continuous preoccupation for the 1001 fontaines teams in the field.
The first project aiming at monitoring and improving the quality of water produced by 1001 fontaines stations was launched in 2008, with the support of Merieux foundation and Cergy Pontoise University.
This project led to:
• The creation of a 1001 fontaines water analysis laboratory in Battambang.
Before the implementation of this laboratory, the NGO used to send samples of the water produced to the Pasteur Institute in Phnom Penh every 3 months. Having its own structure facilitates the number of tests which can be done, ensuring closer monitoring of the water quality.
This laboratory uses standard methods to detect the presence of indicators of fecal contamination: counts of E.Coli and CT, measure a few chemical elements and physical parameters.

• The set up of a process to control the quality of the water on site for the operator
A process was set up to enable each operator and assistant to control the quality of the water directly on site through a presence-absence test, increasing the frequency of water quality control.
The “Presence ? Absence” (P?A) test is a rapid detection test which can be used on site at room temperature without specific equipment.

• The set up of a quality management system for the “animators” (facilitators)
A specific process was set up to help the animators from the local NGO regularly control the quality of the water through a series of tests, ensuring a second and independent level of control.
The animators run these tests regularly at the NGO’s laboratory, inform the operators of the results and if necessary help him/her adjust the treatment process.
Ensuring the quality of the water is an on-going process and can always be improved which is why we wish to launch a new project aiming at improving the quality of the water produced. This project will focus on:
• Understanding the origin of taste and odor in different water sources
• Improving pre-treatment of surface and underground water to improve taste
• Upgrading the process and products to guarantee the quality of the storage of the water

We would be delighted to receive financial support from the BPN on this project as well as benefit from the PWX members expertise on water treatment to help us improve our model.

Files

Location

Optimizing water treatment and quality control at 1001 fontaines sites in Cambodia

Battambang, Cambodia

Impact

Focus

Primary focus:
Water Purification
Secondary focus:
Capacity Building

People Getting Safe Drinking Water

0

Please refer to the comment in the section "People getting other benefits"

People Getting Sanitation

0

Please refer to the comment in the section "People getting other benefits"

Schoolchildren Getting Water

0

People Getting Other Benefits

This project aims at improving the quality of the drinking water produced, and will focus on conducting studies in the NGO’s laboratory and on site to understand the areas of improvement of the model and implement the necessary adjustments at existing and new 1001 fontaines sites.
The project will therefore not have a direct impact on new beneficiaries but will help each operator increase the quality of the water produced. This will contribute to making the project more appealing to existing and new customers as well as ensuring a higher satisfaction for the 1001 fontaines bottled drinking water.
Indeed, we know that the taste of the water produced is one of the barriers to recruiting new clients. If we are able to adjust this parameter, we will be able to reach out to many more beneficiaries and change water use habits.
As of June 2013, the project enables 150 000 people in Cambodia to drink safe water every day and we are currently launching new sites to reach out to 150 000 additional beneficiaries. This project will primarily impact the new sites which will be launched but will also help improve the quality of the water produced at existing sites. Therefore, we consider that this project will increase the quality of the service provided to all 1001 fontaines customers.
The results of this project should also be of interest to all members of the PWX involved in the implementation of solutions for clean, high quality drinking water.

Implementation

Application type:
project
Start date:
July 1, 2013
Completion date:
July 1, 2014

Technology Used

The objective of the project is to find cost effective solutions to harmonize the quality of the water produced at 1001 fontaines sites and increase its quality.
The project will combine academic research focusing on collecting relevant information, facts and existing studies on the identified topics for improvements. This research phase will provide the team with hard facts to develop strategies to address the problems in the field.
These different strategies will then be tested in the NGO’s laboratory to draw a first set of conclusions and identify the most relevant strategies. Finally a field validation will be conducted to ensure that the solutions developed are applicable on site.
Three studies will be conducted:
1. Study 1: guaranteeing the quality of the water stored, reducing the cost of microbiological analysis of the water on site
Specific areas of research:
• Improving the bottle disinfection by studying different products
• Increasing persistence of water quality by assessing different products in compliance with local regulations.
This study will be conducted over a 2 month period. The first month will be dedicated to academic research and initial testing in the laboratory and the second month on work in the field and knowledge transfer to the local team.
2. Study 2: Optimizing underground water treatment to reduce taste and odor
Specific areas of research:
• Identifying the origin of taste and odor (high level of minerals – calcium, iron)
• Adjusting the process and maintenance to reduce concentration of minerals (aeration)

3. Study 3: Optimizing surface water treatment to reduce taste and odor
Specific areas of research:
• Identifying the origin of taste and odor (high level of minerals – micro-algae, organic)
• Optimizing the flocculation step by adding mechanization of mixing
• Optimizing the activated carbon filter step by sizing it better and ensuring optimal maintenance
These studies will be conducted over a 10 month period with approximately 2 months of academic research and work in the laboratory, 4 to 7 months of work on site and 1 month of training and knowledge transfer.

These three studies will contribute to identifying solutions to address each of these issues as well as globally reducing the cost of quality control.

Phases

Please refer to the previous paragraph

Community Organization

> Involving the operators
Once the first tests have been run in the laboratory, we will work with several pilot sites in the field to run “real environment” testing and produce more accurate results. The local operators will therefore be actively involved during this experimental phase. We expect to run this experimental phase at 5 sites.
> Involving the beneficiaries
Although the quality of the water can easily be evaluated according to international norms, the threshold of acceptability of local populations on matters such as taste and odor can be more complicated to define.
The organization being field driven, we try to take into account as much feedback as possible from the beneficiary communities and involve them in improving the model.
Regarding qualitative information, the operators for example regularly provide feedback to the animators on the clients’ opinion of the service and possible complaints. These elements help the local team identify priority areas of improvement.
As interviews are generally the best way to find out what the beneficiaries want, we try, whenever possible, to collect information directly from the beneficiaries and local community leaders. This can be done through individual consultation or sometimes by interviewing a group of people to stimulate different views and opinion.
Finally, monitoring the sales of each site and client retention are also important indicators of the communities’ satisfaction.

Government Interaction

1001 fontaines and Teuk Saat, the local implementer have been working closely with the Ministry of Rural Development since 2007, actively taking part in the monthly meeting with other NGOs on the subject of research on water quality.
We also work with the Ministry of Industry, Mining and Energy (MIME), which plays an important role in setting water quality standards and ensuring that bottled water projects are compliant with local and international regulations. The MIME regulations and recommendations will be taken into account in the choice of new products to improve the treatment process.

Ancillary Activities

There is no information about ancillary activities currently available for this plan.

Other Issues

There is no information about other issues currently available for this plan.

Sustainability

Maintenance Revenue

Research projects are always designed over a specified period of time, and are therefore not designed to last. In this case, there are no maintenance costs related with the project.

Maintenance Cost

There is no information about costs for maintenance currently available for this plan.

Metrics

The project being focused on research, the metrics we will be following will be the outcomes of the studies, ie :
- having a better understanding of how to guarantee the quality of the water stored though a list of recommended products to disinfect the bottle and improve persistence of the water quality
- having a better understanding of how to reduce taste and odor in underground and surface water by defining a specific protocole to reduce concentration according to the levels of mineral in the water source (aeration process, floculation, carbon filter optimization)

The goal of this project is ultimatly to help the team improve the quality of the water produced so that all these recommendations will need to be applied in the field. We will ensure that this is the case by closely monitoring the implementation of each of these recommendations on site through the monthly visits conducted by the operator.
The water quality (taste and odor) will continue to be monitored on a regular basis as it already is the case.




Financial

Cost

$41,414

Personnel costs: 31 202
Logistics: 5 212
Material: 4 100
Administrative costs: 900
For more information, please refer to attachments

Co-funding

$21,414

Other private foundations and 1001 fontaines funds

Community Contribution

$0

Non financial (feedback)

Funds Requested

$20,000

Files

Discussion

Filtration and costing
Hello, this is another interesting proposal. Some of my questions relate to the filtration process and the costing for this project.

1. If the bottles are clean, why the need to chlorinate the bottles/water? The water coming out of the ultra violet light purifier is dirt, bacteria and chemical free- because of this, why the need to chlorinate the water after it is in the bottles?
2. Are the filter operators from your organization or are they trained members of the community?
3.How much do the beneficiaries pay for a bottle of water? Do these costs cover maintenance costs?
4. This seems expensive for just research- are there other ways to conduct this without such high costs?

Thanks!
Jamin
Posted by Carolyn Meub, Pure Water for the World, on August 23, 2013 at 6:39pm
I have a similar question to Jamin:
It sounds like you have already identified the reasons for the odor and taste (high levels of minerals like calcium and iron) as well as how to reduce the concentration (aeration). If so, why is the cost so high for research? What do the 2 months of academic research and 4-7 months of onsite work entail?

I look forward to your answers,
Jenna
Posted by Jenna Saldaña, El Porvenir, on August 23, 2013 at 6:46pm
Dear Jamin and Jenna,

Thank you for your remarks and questions. I’ll try to answer in a comprehensive way.

1. We use chlorine only to disinfect bottles before rinsing it and filling it with purified water. Indeed our bottles are reused, meaning that when delivering bottles of clean water, the operator gets the empty ones, washes it and to re-fills it; it’a an ongoing cycle. In no case water is chlorinated, as the communities we serve in Cambodia don’t care for chlorine taste, which is a constraint we had to consider in the first place.
2. All operators are local villagers who are recruited and trained by our local partner team to run a safe drinking water production and distribution activity. In the present proposal, operators of a limited number of existing water stations will be actively involved in the project, since one of the objectives of this R&D project is to improve water treatment processes in order to better suit local operators constraints, needs and competences in the long run. The outcomes of this project will then benefit all the operators exploiting a water station under the 1001 fontaines initiative.
3. The cost of a 20-litres bottle of purified water is between 1,000 and 1,200 riels in Cambodia, i.e. around USD 0.20, or USD 0.01 per litre. This cost is affordable for local people and enable the operators to cover for maintenance costs as well as get a stable revenue.

4. (also answers Jenna’s questions) One of the main components of our project on optimizing water treatment and quality control is about the odor and taste of water, which is one of the most complicated parameters to be regulated and monitored. A number of scientific studies have been conducted on these issues by different organizations, which gives us an idea of the reasons associated to odor and taste But we need to refine this analysis within the context of our stations and most importantly our aim is to establish a protocol to identify the different causes of different situations, understandable et usable for local technicians from an operational perspective.

The cost of the project includes different experiments conducted under real conditions, i.e. with at least 6 months of implementation in the field in order to test the results of various protocols. Field testing will be preceded by laboratory studies. For example, identifying a good chlorine product for bottle disinfection – with good disinfectant properties but acceptable odor and taste, at a reasonable cost – is one of the items on the list. After doing a review of existing documents on the corresponding products and also comparing suppliers available locally, selected products will be first tested in our laboratory, and then only the most convincing will be tested on site. This field experiment takes several months, as the objective is to observe the outcomes in terms of water quality but also as regards the conditions of use over time. Hence project costs mainly include human resource, as the whole project will be implemented by local technical staffs, in our laboratory and in the 5 stations selected as pilot sites.

For sure we could decide to use technologies such as reverse osmosis, which are typically used for larger infrastructures. In that case, we would not have to conduct a specific study ( so we would not engage the costs of the present proposal) but, in return, the investment cost of installing reverse osmosis in all our water stations would be way too high. On the contrary, we try to keep our project costs as low as possible while ensuring a very good quality in our water treatment and quality control processes. This is the reason why we decided to invest in a comprehensive research & development project, with a view to identify practices that fits to the local context of our projects in Cambodia, as well as in Madagascar. We hope the results of this work will also be useful to other organizations involved in safe water production.

Best regards
Helene
Posted by Hélène Lefebvre, 1001 fontaines, on August 26, 2013 at 2:20pm Submitter Comment
Hello Helene,

Thank you for your response. I do have two additional questions:

1. What is the total dissolved solids content of the water?
2. How many liters per day are you distributing?

Thanks!
Jamin
Posted by Carolyn Meub, Pure Water for the World, on August 26, 2013 at 3:26pm
Hi Jamin,

1. I don't have that information as it varies quite a lot from one source to another. I guess your question is about the type of water we treat. I can tell you we often face high turbidity when using surface water, which is why the pre-treatment phase plays a great role prior to the purification itself. Let me know if you have additional concerns on this topic.

2. The production capacity of the system is 600L/hour. A water station typically produces and distributes an average 1,200 liters per day after 12 months of activity (this corresponds to the break even point). The objective is to double this figure after 3 years by increasing the customer base.

best,
Helene
Posted by Hélène Lefebvre, 1001 fontaines, on August 26, 2013 at 3:37pm Submitter Comment
Developing confidence in improved water quality
The detailed project description and accompanying dialog indicates that 300,000 people, some for over five years. have lacked confidence in their water due to contamination, taste, order, etc. While the proposed solution may address the technical aspects of improving both water quality and water storage, where is the plan for communications of the results to this large number of people? Who is responsible and what portion of the project costs will go to the communications program needed to improve "drinker confidence" that their water source has dramatically improved?
Posted by Roger Kallock, Team Blue, on August 28, 2013 at 9:13pm
Hello Roger,

300,000 is the number of people we expect to benefit from this project. It corresponds to the customers of existing water stations (around 150,000) as well as the future customers of water stations to be set up in the coming years (also 150,000). Since the project is about improving the characteristics of the water produced in our stations and delivered to beneficiaries, we consider they will all benefit from these improvements.

As you pointed out, the local project team has gathered testimonies from a number of clients revealing water taste and odor issues in certain stations as a barrier to service adoption by villagers. This issue has also been raised by the project technicians and even if it concerns only a limited number of stations today, others can be concerned later.
Improving the organoleptic properties of water is an ongoing process, as the causes change over time. We have been working on it since the beginning of our activities in Cambodia, on a case by case basis, and we observed that improving water parameters impacts service uptake as villagers are informed about the improvements and can notice it for themselves.

The idea is now to develop a more systematic approach so the local team can adjust their interventions to any problem in an effective way. This is particularly important as the number of stations is increasing. You are right to underline that communication is needed to inform the clients of the stations. We plan to include it in our regular communication activities (group meetings in villages). As regards future stations, beneficiaries won’t have been exposed to past odor and taste issues as the project will be new for them. So we expect to reach more customers more rapidly!

Thanks and regards
Helene
Posted by Hélène Lefebvre, 1001 fontaines, on August 29, 2013 at 9:55am Submitter Comment
As long as we do not double-count the 150k getting water from existing stations, this is fine.
Posted by Georgia Davis, Blue Planet Network, on October 2, 2013 at 9:11am
Why this model and how will results be used
Hello,
I'm curious as to why you all chose this model to begin with and not a distribution system that takes water to the homes or close to homes? What is the overall need for clean water in Cambodia? Is anything being done to create infrastructure to meet all of their water needs (cooking, bathing, cleaning, etc)?

How will the results be distributed to all the stations and how will the results of the study factor into future trainings for people who run the stations?

thank you,
Jenna
Posted by Jenna Saldaña, El Porvenir, on August 29, 2013 at 3:46pm
Hi Jenna,

Thank you for your additional questions.

According to the Ministry of Rural Development (MRD) of Cambodia, access to improved water in rural areas was only 53 per cent (in dry season) and to improved sanitation, only 24 per cent in 2010 (DHS, 2010). The related strategic objective of the MRD is that by by 2025, 100% of the rural population have sustainable access to improved water supply.

We agree that in an ideal situation, every Cambodian household would be equipped with a piped water system and get 20L of safe water every day. Actually some other NGOs implement small piped water systems in rural towns of Cambodia. Not to mention water quality issues due to the reluctance of people to consume chlorinated water, our approach is based on the fact that the majority of rural settlements are too dispersed to benefit from the installation of a piped system in the near future. Our solution fill in this important gap. We also think that solutions can be combined, by reserving bottled water for drinking purpose while piped water can provide higher quantities for other domestic usages. We are discussing this option with other organizations specialized in bigger infrastructures, as we believe the best way to proceed would be to collaborate with others rather that developing additional expertise within 1001fontaines.

About the dissemination of the results of the present project, the main recipients will be the local staffs in charge of project implementation. The objective is to provide them with a methodology to rapidly identify water quality issues (in particular odor and taste issues) in order to provide a rapid and targeted response to the different situations. The project team will also transfer knowledge to the operators of water stations, as water quality is one of the main issues addressed during training workshops and on-site “coaching” sessions.
This project is definitely about developing substantive work on water quality, which will inform the whole 1001 fontaines initiative in Cambodia as well as other intervention countries.

Best regards,
Helene
Posted by Hélène Lefebvre, 1001 fontaines, on September 2, 2013 at 9:42am Submitter Comment
Why the need for research when safe water is already serving 150,000 Cambodians?
Hi,
Thank you for answering the valid questions above. I am confused. 1001 fontaines says "As of June 2013, the project enables 150 000 people in Cambodia to drink safe water every day" why is it necessary to do more research on providing safe water to additional 150000 population? Is it not possible to produce safe water by the same system in the new target area? I will ask other questions based on your response to this question.
Thank you
Meera Hira-Smith
Posted by Meera Hira-Smith, Project Well, on September 2, 2013 at 3:28pm
Hi Meera,
You are right, we will of course deploy our existing system to other areas in order to reach more beneficiaries (150 000 and more). The water produced by the stations is totally safe in terms of health so we have no plan to change the system in itself.
The project we present here for peer review is about improving some aspects of the said system, in order to address (among others) "odor and taste" issues we have been facing in some stations. This project will thus benefit both existing and future stations.

This question may not appear very important, but it actually is as it is a condition to service uptake among target populations. We are determined, on the same way as we would do for wealthier customers, to provide communities with the best product and service they can expect.

the project also includes a component on improving the process to ensure the quality of water during storage in the homes of beneficiaries (in terms of effectiveness and cost-efficiency), as re-contamination is often critical in many safe water projects.

best regards,
Helene
Posted by Hélène Lefebvre, 1001 fontaines, on September 2, 2013 at 4:02pm Submitter Comment
Bon Jour!

Thank you for your thorough and very professional proposal. I have not read and digested all the 38 pages of attachments, but have gone thru them.

I think your case would be much stronger if you use an existing lab to test a few samples across your projects and provide some analysis (which would be part of a baseline): current TDS levels, taste, odour, etc.

What i am struggling with is an extension to what Meera pointed out. Should we use our limited resources to reach impacted people faster (and hopefully greater numbers) than to improve the situation for those already getting safe water?

Some of your improvements do not need research, i believe, before rolling out in your future projects. Others do require research, but that is where we might have to make a choice. The opinions of all the peers here are important.

Regards,
Rajesh
Posted by Georgia Davis, Blue Planet Network, on September 12, 2013 at 12:31pm
Bonjour Rajesh,

Actually, we do use our 2 existing labs to do the water testing and analysis. Water from every station is analysed every month in these labs; this provides a baseline for our R&D work. We also use external laboratories at the Institut Pasteur of at the Cambodian Ministry of Mine and Energy to perform comprehensive testings twice a year.

Regarding your second remark, I understand the sort of "dilemma" you describe, but actually we believe there is no real trade-off to be done here. The problem is not about choosing between more beneficiaries or improving the situation of current beneficiaries, since the results of our researches will be used in all future internvention areas, and hopefully it will allow us to reach more people, faster and in a more stable way. We also hope these results will be useful for other NGOs and project implementers in Cambodia and elsewhere.

The question is rather what do we do to ensure that the service we provide, and to which communities allocate a budget that is not a small sum given their income situation, is of standard quality, the quality of which people have a legitimate expectation.

Finally, rather than continuing to respond to water quality issues on a case by case basis (which in the ends has a higher cost), we decided it would be wise to address it in a coherent and efficient way. We think it is also a good way to ensure that our work is used by others.

Best regards,
Helene
Posted by Hélène Lefebvre, 1001 fontaines, on September 12, 2013 at 1:38pm Submitter Comment
Extent of problem & Community Education
Hello,

This is an interesting application and there have been some great questions already, I have a couple of questions myself.

1. Do you know whether there has been any research to define the extent of the problem regarding taste and odour complaints, i.e. how many people are drinking unsafe water because they are unhappy with taste or odour of bottled water?

2. In developed countries there are also differences in taste and odour of potable water, and many people prefer the taste of water that they are accustomed to, however people are educated that potable water is still safe to drink, regardless of the taste. Will 1001 fontaines also be conducting educational activities to inform communities that the bottled water is safer than untreated water?

Thanks, Carys
Posted by Carys Everett, East Meets West, an affiliate of Thrive Networks, on September 4, 2013 at 10:55am
Hello Carys,

1. Well, the main source of information is the level of water sales for each station, month after month. When there is an unexpected decline in sales, clients are interviewed by operators or community facilitators from the project team as to why they buy less water, and the complaints are recorded. The reasons for changes in water odor and taste are various – ranging from raw water hardness and the presence of vegetation to a change in season – and our responsibility is to 1/ explain these reasons to our beneficiaries and 2/ do our best to address this issue in terms of water treatment.

2. Indeed, we must take into account an important process of adaptation and education of populations to a different product and different habits. We include messages on water quality in our information sessions among villagers – e.g. water that looks clean may actually not be safe for consumption, and water that has a particular taste may actually be totally safe. We also organize visits to the stations so villagers can see how water is purified and it goes from the pond to the sealed bottle. This activity has proven very successful in convincing people.
The present project consists in addressing significant water odor and taste issues, but in the case of tiny variations in odor and/or taste, information and education are obviously the best options.

Thank you,

Helene
Posted by Hélène Lefebvre, 1001 fontaines, on September 6, 2013 at 8:56am Submitter Comment
monitoring and solar energy during cloudy days
Thank you Helene for your response on my earlier questions. Here is a couple more:
1. How does 1001 fontaines monitor the efficient use of water at each site other than measuring the different parameters for safe water quality? According to the report 150000 population is served with safe water, is there any schedule for inspection of each project set up by the implementer? If not, PWX would be the best solution to track the projects.

2. I don't know much about Cambodia's rainy weather. Hope it is not like West Bengal in India where during monsoon there may be 4-5 days of rain and cloudy weather that affects solar powered water heating system. In the region where you have set up the solar powered system during the wet season from June to November do they have several cloudy days? If so, is there any alternate power to keep the system running?
Thank you
Meera
Posted by Meera Hira-Smith, Project Well, on September 5, 2013 at 1:23am
Hi Meera,
Thank you for your questions.

1. Every water station receives regular follow-up visit from our local team, at least once a month when there is no specific problem, and every time an operator is facing a problem he/she cannot fix by himself/herself. During monthly visits, in addition to technical assistance, the local project team collect water sample for quality testing as well as key data about business management (water sales volumes, expenses, number of clients, etc.). This information is then used to adapt training sessions to the various needs of the operators.

2. You are right, the weather in Cambodia can be very cloudy sometimes, but it never caused problems for the operation of the water stations. I guess there is always sufficient light to keep solar panels functioning, even during the rainy season. However, each panel is connected to a battery so there is always an energy reserve in case of problem.

Cheers

Helene
Posted by Hélène Lefebvre, 1001 fontaines, on September 6, 2013 at 8:08am Submitter Comment

Ratings

0
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6
The research proposed by 1001 fontaines could provide useful improvements for their process of water treatment to improve customer satisfaction. I would recommend that 1001 fontaines review the existing financial model for the platforms and allow some funds for ongoing improvements to be included within the water station operational budget. Thank you to Helene for quick and detailed responses to questions.
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5
While we appreciate the desire to provide superior water quality in all aspects, this is an expensive research project. It would seem that with so many operators and labs, you could conduct mini-tests and achieve the results you want. Improving output, reaching more people, providing more than drinking water seem more beneficial avenues to pursue. We wish you continued success in your endeavors.
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7
Just like PWX, this project may not appear attractive to funders. Infrastructure projects are not attractive investments, even though in this case one can get pictures of smiling children with water drops!

However, i am not convinced that some of these activities could not be part of regular projects with a bit more rigour in monitoring and analysis. There are some activities that need lab and investment. Hope that funders can be attracted to them and happy to help by better documenting your current projects and setting up continuous reporting.
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6
BPN funds is to provide water and not for research. However, the program lay out is good, worth seeing the outcome of monitoring reports on PWX in the long run.
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4
This project as a whole is impressive and impacts many beneficiaries. However, there is concern with the high cost for research especially given that some of these studies might potentially be conducted in a different manner so as to not to be as expensive.
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6
Excellent proposal and followup discussion. I'm troubled with investing in helping improve an already large organization which seems to have an internal focus to improve water quality vs. an external focus to get acceptable water to more needy people. The sense of urgency doesn't seem to be as strong as needed to insure success.
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